Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2362 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/04/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Discrimination Essay Did you like this example? In this current time, age discrimination has increased reported incidents around the world. For many, this type of discrimination is hampering the rights of employees or artists who were given less priority to claim a certain privilege or opportunity. This is due to the preference of institutions and groups towards the younger generation who are more active and cooperative. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Age Discrimination in the Workplace" essay for you Create order The aging population is concerned that this type of discrimination can significantly affect their emotional integrity due to the intimidating factors caused by stereotyping companies. However, there are new laws that are attempting to prevent this situation from happening in the future. Companies are usually apprehended after finding out that they have been involved in discriminative nature towards individuals who are subjected for apprehension. Now, the law of discrimination is slowly gaining presence around the world due to its negative impact to the community with the elderly population (Prokurat, 2012). As for the case of Liebman v. Metropolitan Life Insurance, the issue is all about discrimination on the basis of age. Employees were restricted from receiving benefits as well as having the threat on discontinuing their employment contract based on their older age group. As a result, their financial and emotional well-being is compromised due to the fact that elderly employees are already singled out by the company. The main goal is to employ younger individuals who are more technically skilled and does not have any medical conditions to continue the business efficiently. As a response to this application, limiting the aging workforce has been generating a concern to the community due to the unfair treatment of Metropolitan Life Insurance. Although there are laws prohibiting age discrimination, this law is not totally implemented as it causes an individual to become degraded with a privilege on working with the company whom does not want older employees. Argument Older employees have benefits to claim, which are the insurances and job opportunities since they are still productive as the younger population. The most interesting fact in this feature is their ability to comprehend simple tasks provided by the company, old school etiquette. This is because there are new laws that provide multiple privileges for the elderly to receive benefits as they have already contributed significant productive practices in the community. Instances of age-related discrimination are often managed by the Supreme Court if there are brave elderly employees who managed to file for a legal lawsuit against their employer. The involvement of the Supreme Court generates public attention due to the nature of the lawsuit that provides a wake-up call for companies to start considering age discrimination to become more affiliated with equal treatment. Example is when an employee is fired due to a health condition, which attracts the attention of the authorities. Elderly employees are understandably weaker as compared to the younger generation. Employees aged 65 and above are mostly experiencing health problems due to a poor sedentary lifestyle that limits their physical and mental performance. They may need to work longer due to lack of retirement income and limited insurance coverages. This is usually the basis of some companies who has been considering if they are still capable of accomplishing several tasks as applied by the managers. The only problem is when elderly becomes sick; it can significantly halt the operation of their performance, leading to a disruption or delays with a certain process. The impact of traditional common law constraints on managers could risk the companys productivity at a given time and strain the performance of the company if the company still employs an individual who is already suffering from discomforts at a given time. For example, a 72-year-old employee, employed with the company for 29 years, with a seco nd diagnosis of breast cancer. With treatments and surgeries, she returns to work from FMLA and Short-Term Disability, however, she is tired and still healing. She is unable to handle the day-to-day responsibilities. With modifications to her workload, how long does the employer continue paying her wages when like employees have additional workloads? From the negative point of view from employers as managers, they believe that it is the right choice for elderly employees to have a limited employment contract. The main reason is that there are physical, mental, and emotional limitations associated with the skills and knowledge performance. As managers, the welfare of the company is always considered as an important consideration to ensure that the level of productivity is competent. Managers are aware that there are corresponding benefits awaiting elderly employees, which is beneficial as compared to the younger generation. This reason has been considering civil rights groups concerned due to the risk of disconnecting affected employees from having a productive socio-economic lifestyle. As a result, there is a surge in seniors filing bankruptcy according to the Washington Post (Singletary, 2018). There is a higher cost of living and Social Security alone will not sustain their debt without a supplemental income. With response to the legal laws, the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) is an institution that regulates all issues of age-related discrimination within the workplace. It conducts investigation to companies involved with complaints of discriminating their employees based on their age. The Age Discrimination Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) is another law that aims to sanction any company, individual, or group involved in segregating other individuals basing on their age, race, color, nationality, or gender (Clarkson, 2012). There are corresponding punishments and financial liabilities for individuals who have been proven on committing discrimination against other individuals or even groups. For Older Worker Benefits Protection Act (OWBPA), it aims to provide more benefits for the elderly population to have more opportunities to maintain their productive socio-economic status. By reaching the age of 65, there are several benefits and compensation opportunities that are prov ided to them regardless of the company they are currently affiliated to in order to prevent any risk of committing financial losses (Echavarria, 2015). Definition of Age Discrimination When we say age discrimination, this is the process wherein an individual has been degraded with their right or privilege basing on their age aside from their health conditions. This scenario usually occurs at the workplace wherein the affected employee has been regarded as a liability by the company or an individual responsible for discriminating an employee. At first, the affected employee may not realize that their age is the factor for influencing their employment viability. However, they become emotionally frustrated whenever discovering that they have been segregated due to their age. Therefore, there are laws such as the ADEA who can be responsible for monitoring companies involved in these illegal acts towards elderly for a possibility of apprehension. As a result, it seeks to protect all affected employees who are at risk from being laid off from the company they are currently working. Jobs that restrict older employees One major job example is a pilot because airline companies are always ensuring the full safety of their passengers while traversing in mid-air. Pilots who are already old are required not to continue their service, especially if they failed recent vision testing. The visual acuity of people who are already in their elder stage can be observed having a blurred vision. Health care employees such as doctors and nurses are also required to retire at the age of 65, in which their physical capacity may no longer sustain their productive skills and knowledge at the workplace. As a physician or nurse, working in the health care facility require physical demand that elders cannot sustain while at work. In this case, there are several factors such as acquiring nosocomial infection, accidents, and the risk of injury that other health care practitioners are not considering any lawsuits from the employees (Skelsey, 2013). Protection from discrimination Employers can protect themselves from any risk of facing discriminative nature by means of complying with the law. Every employer must understand that there are EEOC applications that monitor companies from any risk of being involved in discriminatory practices. These are institutions who are involved in illegal practice for excluding their employees based on their age. The ADEA is a provision wherein companies or any involved employer will be subjected to legal proceedings once there are strong evidences that they have been involved in such practices. It prohibits employers from forcing these aged employees into retirement if they are in nonmanagerial positions with other criteria (Clarkson, 2012). For OWBPA, employers are raising compensation and benefits for elderly individuals on the basis that they can become a role model to other companies who provides higher benefits for older employees. The 72-year-old employee with breast cancer should be provided accommodations to her hards hip (Clarkson, 2012) which may require modifying her job responsibilities to avoid a potential discrimination claim. Hiring practices With the issue against existing employees on the basis of retirement age, there are certain practices wherein employees are indeed needed to resign after several years of serving the company. One of the most critical issues is the separation pay because when there is a forced retirement for employees, it is important for the companies to pay their separation wage. In this case, employees will have a financial bridge to establish a business after their professional career demise. This employers right is regarded as the appoint or dismissal of an employee. This is in accordance to the procedures that complies with the laws to prevent any risk of being discriminated. Furthermore, employers have the rightful decision to protect the interest of their brand or companys image from any intent to abuse their authority just to conduct illicit activities against the company (Perry, 2014). For employees over forced retirement indicates that the employer may have the right to protect its own image and reputation from any unjust practices made by the employee. This is because there are conditions wherein the employee may have caught doing illegal or unacceptable practices that promoted harm and intimidation to other employees. When the employee becomes violent enough to cause a significant damage to the company, forced resignation or retirement regardless of age is allowed under the law. In terms of health-related problems, the company may also have the right to ensure that the employee should undergo an immediate rehabilitation. This is regardless of age wherein the employee should not be exerting more effort as their health might be further compromised if they continue to render their service with the company (Levin, 2012) As for employees who were terminated, the main basis is their behavioral characteristics while working with the company. In favor of employers rights, they have always the prerogative to take action against an employee who was caught involved in activities that violates the rules of the company. Sometimes, there are company laws that restrict employees from performing something that has been causing a conflict of interest with the company. One example is when the employee is caught involved in fraudulent transactions that gravely affected the practices of the whole institution. Therefore, the employers believe that they are not going anything wrong because they are just protecting their company and the safety of all other employees of the company (Tuccille, 2012). Employers have the right to terminate their employee if there are scenarios that are considered before deciding to discontinue their working contracts. The first provision is that when the contract has been breached, the em ployer has the right to let go of the employee regardless of the age, race gender, or nationality. Possible effects of employees within the workplace The first possible impacts of having an older employee within the workplace are the presence of seniority, in which the main goal is to impose an autocratic ambiance to promote discipline within the community or society. Younger employees will learn how to become respectful with other employees, which is responsible for promoting an optimistic camaraderie between two or more employees and other stakeholders. This is all about controlling behaviors that are usually presumed inappropriate under the eyes of elder employees. The second effect is to create balanced behavioral instincts that regulate the attitudes of different personalities in the workplace. Older employees always promote harmonious working relationships with the younger employees by means of sharing their experiences that are useful to prevent any dangerous remarks affecting the integrity of the company. Having a good camaraderie enhances harmonious working relationships because older employees share their knowledge regar ding their past experiences with similar situation. In the case mentioned earlier of the employee returning from bouts of breast cancer, she never abused her time and filed for her benefits accordingly. This sets an example to the younger team members of time management. This is because older employees have already experienced certain practices that are important for the companys implementation of laws such as age discrimination that affects the security of tenure in their respective job. These older employees are able to provide previous reactions from other individuals who encountered discriminatory actions from their past employment experience (Evans, 2012). It has been learned that age discrimination is a serious offense that can be committed by an individual or group at work. This is solely based on the prejudiced actions applied by the involved offending party towards the victim that has been enduring the agony of suffering from mistreatment. Managers are aware that age discrimination can bring a significant threat to the psychological capacity of an affected individual. The main reason behind this is that employees can be terminated without prior notice, making them financially unstable after the incident. The best solution is to analyze the existing laws applied by the company to discover some rules that promotes prejudiced practices towards the rights of employees. For this reason, there are plenty of times that a person can change the existing law and implementation made by the operating institution with respect to the rights of their employees in compliance with the laws such as EEOC, ADEA and OWBPA (Watkins, 2011). Doing the rig ht thing to ensure the quality of our employees should be a priority in all business structures. Creating an open communication structure will equip managers with the understanding of where the senior employees are in their careers and to support their need to continue working under the circumstances or to assist if one makes the decision to face retirement.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Economic Indicators nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;For the individual who watches CNN a great deal, the term Economic Indicators well recognized. However, for the individual who chooses not to make CNN a primary station, the term Economic Indicators can be extremely confusing. Economist often use very unlike terms when referring to the fluctuating economy. Economic Indicators happens to be one of the many terms that they use. So, what exactly are Economic Indicators, and what purpose do they serve? In addition to the previous stated questions, are they really that important? nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Economic Indicators serve the purpose of spying on the economy, let me further elaborate. Economic Indicators are economic statistics.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Beginning with the types of Indicators, they can be classified as leading, lagging, or contemporaneous also called coincident. First, leading indicators are those that change ahead of the economy. This means that the leading indicators change before the economy. A good example of a leading indicator, which also will be used later on, is stock market returns. The stock market declines before it is evident in the economy and it increases before the economy is affected by it. The next type of an indicator is lagged. A lagged indicator changes after the economy does. It is referred to as lagged because it changes quarters after the economy. For example, the unemployment rate, one would consider to be a lagged indicator. Unemployment does not improve immediately after the economy improves. It will take two or three quarters so that unemployment reflects the economy. The last type of Economic Indicator is contemporaneous or coincident. A contemporaneous economic indicator is one that moves at the same rate as the economy. When the economy goes down, it is reflected by the indicator. Gross Domestic Product is considered to be a contemporaneous indicator. As the economy improves, GDP improves and as the economy declines the same is true for GDP. Without going into detail, the three relationships that Economic Indicators can have with the economy are Procyclical, Countercyclical, and Acyclic. IfShow MoreRelatedLeading Economic Indicators1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeading Economic indicators offer statistics and data about the economy. There are a total of ten economic indicators that the conference board uses to gather statistics and data to determine the status of the economy and what is expected. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Overview of Consumer Protection Act Consumer protection act is to protect the consumers from unfair trade practices. As we are aware that most of the businesses before establishing the business, do some research of the market condition due to which they reach in a well dominating position because they are aware of even those things which generally consumers are not aware of, so they use that information for the exploitation. To avoid this, Consumer protection act is a benchmark in the legislation for consumers as this act provides speedy justice as compared to other existing laws. One of the most important responsibilities of the government is the welfare of the people, that where this act was introduced as it helps the consumers to get fast and inexpensive justice. (Kashyap, 2015) This act ensures the rights of the consumers and its importance is as follows:- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Protection from Exploitation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumer Education Ã¢â¬ ¢ Redressal of Complaints Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bulletins and Periodicals Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encouraging honest Businessmen Ã¢â¬ ¢ Connecting Link Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quality Life for consumers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ethical Obligations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Getting public support (Patil, 2013) Three selected Acts and their requirements The Fair Trading Act 1986 The purpose of this act is to contribute to a trading environment in which: 1. The interests of the consumer are protected. 2. Businesses compete effectively. 3. Consumers and businesses participate confidently. The act: 1. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills Oxford Press, 1956 The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday worlds in which they live, yet even in these rounds of Job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither understand nor govern. Great changes are beyond their control, but affect their conduct and outlook none the less. The very framework of modern society confines them to projects not their own, but from every side, such changes now press upon the men and women of the mass society, who accordingly eel that they are without purpose in an epoch in which they are without power. But not all men are in this sense ordinary. As the means of information and of power are centralized, some men come to occupy positions in American society from which they can look down upon, so to speak, and by their decisions mightily affect, the everyday worlds of ordinary men and women. They are not made by their Jobs; they set up and break down Jobs for thousands of others; they are not confined by simple family responsibilities; they can escape. They may live in many hotels and houses, but they are bound by no one community. They need not merely meet the demands of the day and hour; in some part, they create these demands, and cause others to meet them. Whether or not they profess their power, their technical and political experience of it far transcends that of the underlying population. What Jacob Burckhardt said of great men, most Americans might well say of their elite: They are all that we are not. The power elite is composed of men whose positions enable them to transcend the ordinary environments of ordinary men and women; they are in positions to make decisions having major consequences. Whether they do or do ot make such decisions is less important than the fact that they do occupy such pivotal positions: their failure to act, their failure to make decisi ons, is itself an act that is often of greater consequence than the decisions they do make. For they are in command of the major hierarchies and organizations of modern society. They rule the big corporations. They run the machinery of the state and claim its prerogatives. They direct the military establishment. They occupy the strategic command posts of the social structure, in which are now centered the effective means of the power and the wealth and the celebrity which they enjoy. The power elite are not solitary rulers. Advisers and consultants, spokesmen and opinion-makers are often the captains of their higher thought and decision. Immediately below the elite are the professional politicians of the middle levels of power, in the Congress and in the pressure groups, as well as among the new and old upper classes of town and city and region. Mingling with them, in curious ways which we shall explore, are those professional celebrities who live by being continually displayed but are never, so long as they remain celebrities, displayed enough It such celebrities are not at the head ot any ominating hierarchy, they do often have the power to distract the attention of the public or afford sensations to the masses, or, more directly, to gain the ear of those who do occupy positions of direct power. More or less unattached, as critics of morality and technicians of power, as spokesmen of God and creators of mass sensibility, such celebrities and consultants are part of the immediate scene in which the drama of the elite is enacted. But that drama itself is centered in the command posts of the major institutional hierarchies. The truth about the nature and the ower of the elite is not some secret which men of affairs know but will not tell. Such men hold quite various theories about their own roles in the sequence of event and decision. Often they are uncertain about their roles, and even more often they allow their fears and their hopes to affect their assessment of their own power. No matter how great their actual power, they tend to be less acutely aware of it than of the resistances of others to its use. Moreover, most American men of affairs have learned well the rhetoric of public relations, in some cases even to the point of using it when they are alone, and thus coming to believe it. The personal awareness of the actors is only one of the several sources one must examine in order to understand the higher circles. Yet many who believe that there is no elite, or at any rate none of any consequence, rest their argument upon what men of affairs believe about themselves, or at least assert in public. There is, however, another view: those who feel, even if vaguely, that a compact and powerful elite of great importance does now prevail in America often base that feeling upon the historical trend of our time. They have felt, for example, the domination of the military event, and from this they infer hat generals and admirals, as well as other men of decision influenced by them, must be enormously powerful. They hear that the Congress has again abdicated to a handful of men decisions clearly related to the issue of war or peace. They know that the bomb was dropped over Japan in the name of the United States of America, although they were at no time consulted about the matter. They feel that they live in a time of big decisions; they know that they are not making any. Accordingly, as they consider the present as history, they infer that at its center, making decisions or failing to make them, there must be an elite of power. On the one hand, those who share this feeling about big historical events assume that there is an elite and that its power is great. On the other hand, those who listen carefully to the reports of men apparently involved in the great decisions often do not believe that there is an elite whose powers are of decisive consequence. Both views must be taken into account, but neither is adequate. The way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the vents of history, linking the two, are the major institutions of modern society. These hierarchies of state and corporation and army constitute the means of power; as such they are now of a consequence not before equaled in human history-and at their summits, there are now those command posts of modern society which offer us the sociological key to an understanding of the role of the higher circles in America. Within American society, major national power now resides in the economic, the political, and the military domains. Other institutions seem off to the side of modern history, and, on occasion, duly subordinated to these. No tamily is as directly powerful in national affairs as any major corporation; no church is as directly powerful in the external biographies of young men in America today as the military establishment; no college is as powerful in the shaping of momentous events as the National Security Council. Religious, educational, and family institutions are not autonomous centers of national power; on the contrary, these decentralized areas are increasingly shaped by the big three, in which developments of decisive and immediate consequence now occur. Families and churches and schools adapt to odern life; governments and armies and corporations shape it; and, as they do so, they turn these lesser institutions into means for their ends. Religious institutions provide chaplains to the armed forces where they are used as a means of increasing the effectiveness of its morale to kill. Schools select and train men for their Jobs in corporations and their specialized tasks in the armed forces. The extended family has, of course, long been broken up by the industrial revolution, and now the son and the father are removed from the family, by compulsion if need be, whenever the army of the state sends out the call. And the symbols of all these lesser institutions are used to legitimate the power and the decisions of the big three. The life-fate of the modern individual depends not only upon the family into which he was born or which he enters by marriage, but increasingly upon the corporation in which he spends the most alert hours of his best years; not only upon the school where he is educated as a child and adolescent, but also upon the state which touches him throughout his life; not only upon the church in which on occasion he hears the word of God, but also upon the army in which he is disciplined. If the centralized state could not rely upon the inculcation of nationalist loyalties in public and private schools, its leaders would promptly seek to modify the decentralized educational system, If the bankruptcy rate among the top five hundred corporations were as high as the general divorce rate among the thirty-seven million married couples, there would be economic catastrophe on an international scale. If members of armies gave to them no more of their lives than do believers to the churches to which they belong, there would be a military crisis. Within each of the big three, the typical institutional nit has become enlarged, has become administrative, and, in the power of its decisions, has become centralized. Behind these developments there is a fabulous technology, for as institutions, they have incorporated this technology and guide it, even as it shapes and paces their developments. The economy-once a great scatter of small productive units in autonomous balance-has become dominated by two or three hundred giant corporations, administratively and politically interrelated, which together hold the keys to economic decisions. The political order, once a decentralized set of several dozen states with a weak spinal cord, has become a entralized, executive establishment which has taken up into itself many powers previously scattered, and now enters into each and every crany of the social structure. The military order, once a slim establishment in a context of distrust fed by state militia, has become the largest and most expensive feature of government, and, although well versed in smiling public relations, now has all the grim and clumsy efficiency of a sprawling bureaucratic domain. In each of these institutional areas, the means of power at the disposal of decision makers have increased enormously; heir central executive powers nave been enhanced; within each ot them modern administrative routines have been elaborated and tightened up. As each of these domains becomes enlarged and centralized, the consequences of its activities become greater, and its traffic with the others increases. The decisions of a handful of corporations bear upon military and political as well as upon economic developments around the world. The decisions of the military establishment rest upon and grievously affect political life as well as the very level of economic activity. The decisions made within the political domain determine economic activities and ilitary programs. There is no longer, on the one hand, an economy, and, on the other hand, a political order containing a military establishment unimportant to politics and to money-making. There is a political economy linked, in a thousand ways, with military institutions and decisions. On each side of the world-split running through central Europe and around the Asiatic rimlands, there is an ever-increasing interlocking of economic, military, and political structures. If there is government intervention in the corporate economy, so is there corporate intervention in the overnmental process. In the structural sense, this triangle of power is the source of the interlocking directorate that is most important for the historical structure of the present. The fact of the interlocking is clearly revealed at each of the points of crisis of modern capitalist society-slump, war, and boom. In each, men of decision are led to an awareness of the interdependence of the major institutional orders. In the nineteenth century, when the scale of all institutions was smaller, their liberal integration was achieved in the automatic economy, by an autonomous play of arket forces, and in the automatic political domain, by the bargain and the vote. It was then assumed that out of the imbalance and friction that followed the limited decisions then possible a new equilibrium would in due course emerge. That can no longer be assumed, and it is not assumed by the men at the top of each of the three dominant hierarchies. For given the scope of their consequences, decisions-and indecisions-in any one of these ramify into the others, and hence top decisions tend either to become coordinated or to lead to a commanding indecision. It has not always been like this. When numerous small entrepreneurs made up the economy, for example, many of them could fail and the consequences still remain local; political and military authorities did not intervene. But now, given political expectations and military commitments, can they afford to allow key units of the private corporate economy to break down in slump? Increasingly, they do intervene in economic affairs, and as they do so, the controlling decisions in each order are inspected by agents of the other two, and economic, military, and political structures are interlocked. At the pinnacle of each of the three enlarged and centralized omains, there have arisen those higher circles which make up the economic, the political, and the military elites. At the top of the economy, among the corporate rich, there are the chief executives; at the top of the political order, the members of the political directorate; at the top of the military establishment, the elite of soldier- statesmen clustered in and around the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the upper echelon. As each of these domains has coincided with the others, as decisions tend to become total in their consequence, the leading men in each of the three domains of power- he warlords, the corporation chieftains, the political directorate-tend-to come together, to torm the power elite ot by C. Wright Mills America. * In the standard image of power and decision, no force is held to be as important as The Great American Public. More than merely another check and balance, this public is thought to be the seat of all legitimate power. In official life as in popular folklore, it is held to be the very balance wheel of democratic power. In the end, all liberal theorists rest their notions of the power system upon the political role of this public; ll official decisions, as well as private decisions of consequence, are Justified as in the publics welfare; all formal proclamations are in its name. Let us therefore consider the classic public of democratic theory in the generous spirit in which Rousseau once cried, Opinion, Queen of the World, is not subject to the power of kings; they are themselves its first slaves. The most important feature of the public of opinion, which the rise of the democratic middle class initiates, is the free ebb and flow of discussion. The possibilities of answering back, of organizing autonomous rgans of public opinion, of realizing opinion in action, are held to be established by democratic institutions. The opinion that results from public discussion is understood to be a resolution that is then carried out by public action; it is, in one version, the general will of the people, which the legislative organ enacts into law, thus lending to it legal force. Congress, or Parliament, as an institution, crowns all the scattered publics; it is the archetype for each of the little circles of face-to-face citizens discussing their public business. This eighteenth-century idea of the public f public opinion parallels the economic idea of the market of the free economy. Here is the market composed of freely competing entrepreneurs; there is the public composed of discussion circles of opinion peers. As price is the result of anonymous, equally weighted, bargaining individuals, so public opinion is the result of each mans having thought things out for himself and contributing his voice to the great chorus. To be sure, some might have more influence on the state of opinion than others, but no one group monopolizes the discussion, or by itself determines the opinions that prevail. Innumerable discussion circles are knit together by mobile people who carry opinions from one to another, and struggle for the power of larger command. The public is thus organized into associations and parties, each representing a set of viewpoints, each trying to acquire a place in the Congress, where the discussion continues. Out of the little circles of people talking with one another, the larger forces of social movements and political parties develop; and the discussion of opinion is the important phase in a total act by which public affairs are conducted. The autonomy of these discussions is an important element in the idea of ublic opinion as a democratic legitimation. The opinions formed are actively realized within the prevailing institutions of power; all authoritative agents are made or broken by the prevailing opinions of these publics. And, in so far as the public is trustrated in realizing its demands, its members may go beyond criticism ot specitlc policies; they may question the very legitimations of legal authority. That is one meaning of Jeffersons comment on the need for an occasional revolution. The public, so conceived, is the loom of classic, eighteenth-century democracy; discussion s at once the threads and the shuttle, tying the discussion circles together. It lies at the root of the conception of authority by discussion, and it is based upon the hope that truth and Justice will somehow come out of society as a great apparatus of free discussion. The people are presented with problems. They discuss them. They decide on them. They formulate viewpoints. These viewpoints are organized, and they compete. One viewpoint wins out. Then the people act out this view, or their representatives are instructed to act it out, and this they promptly do. Such are he images of the public of classic democracy which are still used as the working justifications of power in American society. But now we must recognize this description as a set of images out of a fairy tale: they are not adequate even as an approximate model of how the American system of power works. The issues that now shape mans fate are neither raised nor decided by the public at large. The idea of the community of publics is not a description of fact, but an assertion of an ideal, an assertion of a legitimation masquerading-as legitimations are now apt to do-as fact. For now the public of public opinion is recognized by all those who have considered it carefully as something less than it once was. These doubts are asserted positively in the statement that the classic community of publics is being transformed into a society of masses. This transformation, in fact, is one of the keys to the social and psychological meaning of modern life in America. . In the democratic society of publics it was assumed, with John Locke, that the individual conscience was the ultimate seat of Judgment and hence the final court of appeal. But this principle was challenged-as E. H. Carr has put it-when Rousseau for the first time thought in terms of the sovereignty of the whole people, and faced the issue of mass democracy. II. In the democratic society of publics it was assumed that a mong the individuals who composed it there was a natural and peaceful harmony of interests. But this essentially conservative doctrine gave way to the Utilitarian doctrine that such a harmony of interests had first to be created by reform before it could work, and later to the Marxian doctrine of class struggle, which surely was then, and certainly is now, closer to reality than any assumed harmony of interests. Ill. In the democratic society of publics it was assumed that before public action would be taken, there would be rational discussion between individuals which would determine the action and that, accordingly, the public opinion that resulted would be the infallible voice of reason. But this has been challenged not only ( 1 ) by the assumed need for experts to decide delicate and intricate issues, but (2) by the discovery-as by Freud-of the irrationality of the man in the street, and (3) by the discovery- as by Marx-of the socially conditioned nature of what was once assumed to be autonomous reason. IV. In the democratic society of publics it was assumed that after determining what is true and right and Just, the public would act accordingly or see that its representatives did so. In the long run, public opinion will not only be right, but public opinion will prevail. This assumption has been upset by the great gap now existing between the underlying population and those who make decisions in its name, decisions of enormous consequence which t until well after the fact. *** e public otten does not even know are being made Public opinion exists when people who are not in the government of a country claim he right to express political opinions freely and publicly, and the right that these opinions should influence or determine the policies, personnel, and actions of their government. In this formal sense there has been and there is a definite public opinion in the United States. And yet, with modern developments this formal right- when it does still exist as a right -does not mean what it once did. The older world of voluntary organization was as different from the world of the mass organization, as was Tom Paines world of pamphleteering from the world of the mass media. Since he French Revolution, conservative thinkers have Viewed With Alarm the rise of the public, which they called the masses, or something to that effect. The populace is sovereign, and the tide of barbarism mounts, wrote Gustave Le Bon. The divine right of the masses is about to replace the divine right of kings, and already the destinies of nations are elaborated at present in the heart of the masses, and no longer in the councils of princes. During the twentieth century, liberal and even socialist thinkers have followed suit, with more explicit reference to what we have called the society of asses. From Le Bon to Emil Lederer and Ortega y Gasset, they have held that the influence of the mass in unfortunately increasing. But surely those who have supposed the masses to be all powerful, or at least well on their way to triumph, are wrong. In our time, as Chakhofln knew, the influence of autonomous collectivities within political life is in fact diminishing. Furthermore, such influence as they do have is guided; they must now be seen not as publics acting autonomously, but as masses manipulated at focal points into crowds of demonstrators. For as publics become asses, masses sometimes become crowds; and, in crowds, the psychical rape by the mass media is supplemented up-close by the harsh and sudden harangue. Then the people in the crowd disperse again-as atomized and submissive masses. In all modern societies, the autonomous associations standing between the various classes and the state tend to lose their effect as vehicles of reasoned opinion and instruments for the rational exertion of political will. Such associations can be deliberately broken up and thus turned into passive instruments of rule, or they can more slowly wither away from lack of use in the face of centralized means of power. But whether they are destroyed in a week or wither in a generation, such associations are replaced in virtually every sphere of life by centralized organizations, and it is such organizations with all their new means of power that take charge of the terrorized or-as the case may be-merely intimidated, society of masses. The institutional trends that make for a society of masses are to a considerable extent a matter of impersonal drift, but the remnants of the public are also exposed to more personal and intentional forces. With the broadening of the base of politics within he context of a folk-lore of democratic decision-making, and with the increased means of mass persuasion that are available, the public of public opinion has become the object of intensive efforts to control, manage, manipulate, and increasingly intimidate. In political, military, economic realms, power becomes, in varying degrees, uneasy before the suspected opinions of masses, and, accordingly, opinion-making becomes an accepted technique of power-holding and power- getting. The minority electorate ot the propertied and the educated is replaced by the total suffrage-and intensive campaigns for the vote. The small eighteenth-century professional army is replaced by the mass army of conscripts-and by the problems of nationalist morale. The small shop is replaced by the mass-production industry-and the national advertisement. As the scale of institutions has become larger and more centralized, so has the range and intensity of the opinion-makers efforts. The means of opinion-making, in fact, have paralleled in range and efficiency the other institutions of greater scale that cradle the modern society of masses. Accordingly, in addition to their enlarged and centralized means of administration, exploitation, and iolence, the modern elite have had placed within their grasp historically unique instruments of psychic management and manipulation, which include universal compulsory education as well as the media of mass communication. Early observers believed that the increase in the range and volume of the formal means of communication would enlarge and animate the primary public. In such optimistic views-written before radio and television and movies-the formal media are understood as simply multiplying the scope and pace of personal discussion. Modern conditions, Charles Cooley wrote, enlarge indefinitely the competition of ideas, and hatever has owed its persistence merely to lack of comparison is likely to go, for that which is really congenial to the choosing mind will be all the more cherished and increased. Still excited by the break-up of the conventional consensus of the local community, he saw the new means of communication as furthering the conversational dynamic of classic democracy, and with it the growth of rational and free individuality. No one really knows all the functions of the mass media, for in their entirety these functions are probably so pervasive and so subtle that they cannot be caught by the means of social research now available. But we do now have reason to believe that these media have helped less to enlarge and animate the discussions of primary publics than to transform them into a set of media markets in mass-like In their attempts to neutralize or to turn to their own use the articulate public, the opinion-makers try to make it a relay network for their views. If the opinion-makers have so much power that they can act directly and openly upon the primary publics, they may become authoritative; but, if they do not have such power and hence have to operate indirectly and without visibility, they will assume the stance of manipulators. Authority is power that is explicit and more or less voluntarily obeyed; manipulation is the secret exercise of power, unknown to those who are influenced. In the model of the classic democratic society, manipulation is not a problem, because formal authority resides in the public itself and in its representatives who are made or broken by the public. In the completely authoritarian society, manipulation is not a problem, because authority is openly identified with the ruling institutions and their agents, who may use authority explicitly and nakedly. They do not, in the extreme case, have to gain or retain power by hiding its exercise. Manipulation becomes a problem wherever men have power that is concentrated and willful but do not have authority, or when, for any reason, they do not wish to use their power openly. Then the powerful seek to rule without showing their powerfulness. They want to rule, as it were, secretly, without publicized legitimation. It is in this mixed case-as in the intermediate reality ot the American today-that manipulation is a prime way of exercising power. Small circles of men are making decisions which they need to have at least authorized by indifferent or recalcitrant people over whom they do not exercise explicit authority. So the small circle tries to manipulate these people into willing acceptance or cheerful support of their decisions or opinions-or at least to the rejection of possible counter-opinions. Authority formally resides in the people, but power is in fact held by small circles of men. That is why the standard strategy of manipulation is to make it appear that the people, or at least a large group of them, really made the decision. That is why even when the authority is available, men with access to it may still prefer the secret, quieter ways of manipulation. But are not the people now more educated? Why not emphasize the spread of education rather than the increased effects of the mass media? The answer, in brief, is that mass education, in many respects, has become- another mass medium. The prime task of public education, as it came widely to be understood in this country, was political: to make the citizen more knowledgeable and thus better able to think and to Judge of public affairs. In time, the function of education shifted from the political to the economic: to train people for better-paying jobs and thus to get ahead. This is especially true of the high-school movement, hich has met the business demands for white-collar skills at the publics expense. In large part education has become merely vocational; in so far as its political task is concerned, in many schools, that has been reduced to a routine training of nationalist loyalties. The training of skills that are of more or less direct use in the vocational life is an important task to perform, but ought not to be mistaken for liberal education: Job advancement, no matter on what levels, is not the same as self- development, although the two are now systematically confused. Among skills, some re more and some are less relevant to the aims of liberal-that is to say, ]liberating- education. Skills and values cannot be so easily separated as the academic search for supposedly neutral skills causes us to assume. And especially not when we speak seriously of liberal education. Of course, there is a scale, with skills at one end and values at the other, but it is the middle range of this scale, which one might call sensibilities, that are of most relevance to the classic public. To train someone to operate a lathe or to read and write is pretty much education of skill; to evoke from eople an understanding of what they really want out of their lives or to debate with them stoic, Christian and humanist ways of living, is pretty much a clear-cut education of values. But to assist in the birth among a group of people of those cultural and political and technical sensibilities which would make them genuine members of a genuinely liberal public, this is at once a training in skills and an education of values. It includes a sort of therapy in the ancient sense of clarifying ones knowledge of ones self; it includes the imparting of all those skills of ontroversy with ones self, which we call thinking; and with others, which we call debate. And the end product of such liberal education of sensibilities is simply the self-educating, self-cultivating man or woman. The knowledgeable man in the genuine public is able to turn his personal troubles into social issues, to see their relevance for his community and his communitys relevance for them. He understands that what he thinks and feels as personal troubles are very often not only that but problems snared by others and indeed not subject to solution by any one individual but only by modifications of the structure of the groups in which he ives and sometimes the structure of the entire society. Men in masses are gripped by personal troubles, but they are not aware of their true meaning and source. Men in public confront issues, and they are aware of their terms. It is the task of the liberal institution, as of the liberally educated man, continually to translate troubles into issues and issues into the terms of their human meaning for the individual. In the absence of deep and wide political debate, schools for adults and adolescents could perhaps become hospitable frameworks for Just such debate. In a community f publics the task of liberal education would be: to keep the public from being overwhelmed; to help produce the disciplined and informed mind that cannot be overwhelmed; to help develop the bold and sensible individual that cannot be sunk by the burdens of mass life. But educational practice has not made knowledge directly relevant to the human need of the troubled person of the twentieth century or to the social practices of the citizen. This citizen cannot now see the roots of his own biases and frustrations, nor think clearly about himself, nor for that matter about anything else. He does not see the frustration of idea, of intellect, by the present organization of society, and he is not able to meet the tasks now confronting the intelligent citizen. Educational institutions have not done these things and, except in rare instances, they are not doing them. They have become mere elevators of occupational and social ascent, and, on all levels, they have become politically timid. Moreover, in the hands of professional educators, many schools have come to operate on an ideology of life adjustment that encourages happy acceptance of mass ways of life rather than the struggle for individual and public transcendence. There is not much doubt that modern regressive educators have adapted their notions of educational content and practice to the idea of the mass. They do not effectively proclaim standards of cultural level and intellectual rigor; rather they often deal in the trivia of vocational tricks and adjustment to life-meaning the slack life of masses. Democratic schools often mean the furtherance of intellectual mediocrity, vocational training, nationalistic loyalties, and little else. The Chief Executives The corporations are the organized centers of the private property system: the chief xecutives are the organizers of that system. As economic men, they are at once creatures and creators of the corporate revolution, which, in brief, has transformed property from a tool of the workman into an elaborate instrument by which his work is controlled and a profit extracted from it. The small entrepreneur is no longer the key to the economic life of America; and in many economic sectors where small producers and distributors do still exist they strive mightily-as indeed they must if they are not to be extinguished-to have trade associations or governments act for
Sunday, April 12, 2020
The definition of Ã¢â¬ËSmall Medium EnterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢ is a complex issue and in most cases, it would vary from country to country, depending on certain variables. In most cases, it would depend on who is giving the definition and what they regard to be SME in their economical background. Generally, SME or Small Medium Enterprise refers to companies or businesses whose overall turnover is below certain levels or limits.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Small Medium Enterprise specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the variables used in defining SMEs in most regions include things such as whether the enterprise is a service-based or goods-producing business, its size, and probably the number of workers they employ (Acs and Morck, 1997). In Canada, for instance, Small business refers to businesses whose employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ rate is below 100 in a goods-producing business or less than 50 employees for a business wh ich is based on services. Anything beyond these cut-offs, but one that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exceed an employee rate of 500 would be classified under middle-sized enterprises. Small-medium enterprises are observed to be more than large enterprises or businesses in most developed and developing economies world-wide (Fink, 1998). The most typical characteristics of Small Medium Enterprises in the whole world is determined by factors such as the size of business or its independent ownership; whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a family enterprise or a group investment. As it would be observed, there are many potential benefits that can be associated with SMEs and this explains the need for a vibrant small and medium-sized enterprise sector in any developing nation. One of the common key benefits of this type of enterprising is that they are important sources of employment in a country, especially for low-skilled labor. Another outstanding benefit of SMEs is in their more flexibility capacity compared to larg e corporations and this makes them more sustainable. SMEs are also observed to have the significant advantage of being less mobile compared to large corporations; a feature which makes them more sustainable for development and advancements in emerging economies. In countries such as the United States, various types of business administration would set different levels of businesses, based on ownership structure, industry type, revenue produced, and the number of employees (Asheim, 2007). As observed previously in this paper, there is hardly any universally accepted definition for SMEs and in that case, classifications of SMEs in the U.S. apply differently in various types of businesses.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basically, the United States International Trade Commission has defined SMEs as corporations that employ fewer than 500 employees, regardless of the context o f the business (Chiao, 2007). In USA, SMEs are classified into two main classes known as the product SMEs and the service SMEs. Generally, both categories plays a crucial role to the development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and for that reason, the role of SMEs can never be underestimated at any value. According to the U.S. International Trade Commission, SMEs contribute about one third of the total exports in merchandise products every year, with Canada being the largest destination for most of these exports (Man, 2007). SMEs have indeed proved to be a major source of employment in USA, by constituting for more than half of the private sector employment, thus leading to a constant growth of employment in the country. More importantly, SMEs have always been significant contributors in matters of product, services, and processes innovations in the country. For these reasons, SMEs are highly regarded as promising initiatives that can effectively support the country towards a comple te recovery from the longstanding effects of the 2007 financial crises, among other economical turbulences such as the current high rates of unemployment. According to Qian (2002), the business environment in USA offers very slight challenges to the SMEs compared to large multinationals, and this provides the SMEs with a strong platform for sustainance. A good example of an SME company in USA is Integrity Applications, Inc (IAI) established in the year 1998. This is a private engineering and software services company with a nationwide recognition across the states. The business is categorized under Ã¢â¬ËConsultant of Systems EngineeringÃ¢â¬â¢ and is located in Chantilly, VA. Some of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services include Space Systems engineering, Software Systems Engineering, Corporate Systems Engineering, Control Systems Engineering, and Enterprise Systems Engineering, among other services. Currently, it is estimated that the mid-sized company generates revenue of around $20 to 50 million in an annual basis. The company has a workforce of approximately 100 to 250 staff, working on various segments of the organization. Integrity Applications Incorporated is arguably one of the fastest advancing consultant companies in the country in matters involving system engineering (Forth and Bewley, 2006).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Small Medium Enterprise specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company was recently recognized as the second best medium-sized workplace in the ratings of the Best Small and Medium Workplaces in the U.S. More importantly, the company was also recognized as a key employer in the regions around San Diego and Washington, by the San Diego Business Journal and Washingtonian magazine, respectively. IAI has been in the forefront in steering the country ahead in innovative matters, through its qualified and highly-skilled professionals in software engineering. References Acs, Z.J. and Morck, R. (1997). The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: A policy perspective. Small Business Economics, 9 (1), 7-20. Asheim, B. (2003). Regional innovation policy for small-medium enterprises. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing. Chiao, Y. (2006). Performance, internationalization, and firm-specific advantages of SMEs in a newly-industrialized economy. Small Business Economics, 26 (5),475-492. Fink, D. (1998). Guidelines for the successful adoption of information technology in small and medium enterprises. International journal of information management, 18 (4), 243-253. Forth, J. and Bewley, H. (2006). Small and medium-sized enterprises: findings from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey. New York: Department of Trade and Industry. Man, T. (2007). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises* 1: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17 (2), 123-142.Adverti sing Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Qian, G. (2002). Multinationality, product diversification, and profitability of emerging US small-and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 17 (6), 611-633. This report on Small Medium Enterprise was written and submitted by user Carley P. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Introduction to Computing A Review of Google Android OS and Apple iOS Mobile Platforms The WritePass Journal
Introduction to Computing A Review of Google Android OS and Apple iOS Mobile Platforms Abstract Introduction to Computing A Review of Google Android OS and Apple iOS Mobile Platforms ). Both have impressive functionalities and features. And both are capable of growing their systems to even more exciting heights in the future. Since the launch of these two mobile platforms, tech analysts and experts have intensely debated the pros and cons of each. Some advocate for Google Android because of its object-oriented architecture based on Java language and for being open-source (Baliton 2012). On the other hand, supporters of Apple iOS praise its enterprise functionality, especially its security and corporate-friendly features (Berthiaume 2012). With these in mind, this paper aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Google Android and Apple iOS mobile operating system platforms. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the two platforms by providing a comprehensive review based on the following criteria: (a) major features and functionalities; (b) advantages and disadvantages; (c) popularity and market share; and (d) the role of application developers Findings and Analysis In order to meet the primary objective of the paper, comparative analysis was used in reviewing Google Android and Apple iOS mobile platforms. Comparative analysis involves the comparison and contrast of two things (Walk 1998). It involves a side-by-side examination of two objects to determine whether they have a common-ground, equivalence, similarities, or differences (Business Dictionary 2012). The review was conducted based on specific criteria. Below are the results of the analysis. Major features and functionalities of Android OS and iOS mobile platforms In order to achieve an objective review of Android and iOS, the discussions regarding the major features and functionalities of both mobile platforms are analysed based on two major elements: (a) Development Features and (b) Applications. Development Features Android OS mainly uses Java, which is the common programming language used by most developers. As such, developing applications are easier for majority of developers. Moreover, since it is open-source, developers can easily access it and make applications for the Android platform. JavaÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility also allows the Android framework to be run on a wide range of hardware, including devices from various manufacturers (Viswanathan 2012; Baliton 2012). On the other hand, iOS uses AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Objective C language. Developers who are familiar with C and C++ will be able to understand it because of similarities in the language. However, because it is proprietary, some developers may find it difficult to use, especially if they are not very proficient in C and C++ (Viswanathan 2012). In terms of application development platforms, Android offers developers open development platforms and allows them to use third party tools for app development.Ã Android developers are also provided with free development tools and documented libraries. This helps developers to play around with their apps, as well as add more functionality to them. (Viswanathan 2012; Baliton 2012). In contrast, for the iOS, Apple has stricter developer guidelines. Developers are given a fixed set of tools to develop apps and they are not allowed to use third party tools that are not approved by Apple (Viswanathan 2012). Android is highly versatile and allows developers to create dynamic apps for multiple purposes. However, the AndroidÃ¢â¬â¢s multi-tasking ability and its fragmented platform pose some challenges to Android developers. As such, amateur Android developers often have problems in learning, understanding, and mastering the platform. For iOS, on the other hand, Apple provides a more stable, exclusive platform for app development. Apple clearly specifies tools and defines their potential and boundaries to make it easier for developers (Viswanathan 2012). Applications The iOS is being commended by its supporters for its enterprise abilities. iOS supports Microsoft Exchange accounts and ActiveSync, which allows contacts, calendars, and email hosted on existing Exchange servers to be loaded on to any iOS devices. Email attachments (e.g. Excel, PowerPoint, Word) can also be viewed without having to download additional software. Additionally, iOS apps are restricted from accessing data from other apps in order to prevent malicious third-party apps from accessing sensitive information (Berthiaume 2012).Ã In terms of number and quality of gaming apps, it is undeniable that the iOS has a bigger and better library of available games than Android. However, the downside is that consumers have to pay for iOS apps; while Android users get most of their gaming apps for free (Fox 2012). In terms of mapping/navigational applications, Google Maps puts Android way ahead of Apple maps. However, Android still has a lot of catching up to do with iOS in terms of the quality and availability of other apps. Moreover, although developers have praised the portability of Java environment, issues with hardware fragmentation is a big challenge for most developers. There are many customer complaints about unsupported devices and developers face the daunting task of enabling support for a huge range of mobile devices. Despite these issues, hardware fragmentation also has an advantage. AndroidÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity and portability gives consumers a wide array of mobile devices to choose from depending on their budget and needs (Fox 2012). Market share commanded by Android OS and iOS The latest report from market research company IDC (International Data Corporation) shows that GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android mobile OS accounted for 75% (136 million units) market share of all smart phone handsets shipped during the third quarter of 2012. This figure is almost double the amount from the same period last year. On the other hand, mobile devices using AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iOS only grew by 57% (26.9 million units), representing a very low 15% of the market share (Hof 2012). Moreover, the latest third quarter report from comScore also shows that Android is the top smart phone platform in the US, with 52.5% market share, up by 0.9 percentage points; while AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s share is 34.3%, up by 1.9 percentage points (Flosi 2012). Figure 1. Top Smart Phone OS Platforms (comScore Report) Top Smartphone Platforms 3 Month Avg. Ending Sep. 2012 vs. 3 Month Avg. Ending Jun. 2012 Total U.S. Smartphone Subscribers Ages 13+ Source: comScore MobiLens Ã Share (%) of Smartphone Subscribers Jun-12 Sep-12 Point Change Total Smartphone Subscribers 100.0% 100.0% N/A Google 51.6% 52.5% 0.9 Apple 32.4% 34.3% 1.9 RIM 10.7% 8.4% -2.3 Microsoft 3.8% 3.6% -0.2 Symbian 0.9% 0.6% -0.3 Ã Advantages and Disadvantages of both Android OS and iOS Despite their immense popularity, both the Android OS and iOS have their own strengths and weaknesses. There are some elements where the Android trumps the iOS; while in other cases, the iOS has the upper hand. The table below summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of both platforms. Google Android OS Apple iOS Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Uses Java language (free, open source) OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Highly fragmented platform Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã More stable, exclusive platform for app developers; tools are specified and defined OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Uses proprietary Objective-C language Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Multi-tasking: Android can run on many applications at the same time OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inconsistency and instability in application designs Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Easy to use/navigate; user friendly OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cannot run Flash or Shockwave Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Allows interface and settings customization; more ability to customize OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Less apps than Apple Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Unique interface OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lack of customization Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Easy access to applications and free download from Android App Market and OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Applications are free but advertising can be bothersome Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cohesive applications; more number of apps OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Have to pay for apps Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Diverse phone options. Android is available from various smart phone manufacturers. OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Not all apps are supported by all Android mobile devices Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Tight integration with social networking OÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Platform is limited to Apple mobile devices only Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Integrated Google services Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Great music experience; good for music lovers Ã ¼Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ability to use as a USB storage device Sources: Mobilecon.info, iChips Tech Blog, Viswanathan 2012, Fox 2012 The Role of Application Developers Mobile applications are able to penetrate markets where the PC could not enter. They allow mobile phones to be more personalized and provide more valued added services such as integrated social media networks, games, etc (Aiyedogbon 2012). Developers create these applications; they are the ones who elevated mobile phones to what it is right now. As such, application developers have a very important role to play in the mobile devices industry. As market demand continues to rise for apps to run on mobile platforms, there is a high demand for mobile development talent. Application developers are the backbone of the mobile devices industry. They create the applications which companies leverage as their unique selling points. Without these apps, mobile devices will be limited to the basic functions of calling and texting. It is the application developers who provide added value to mobile devices and as such, their importance in the mobile industry cannot be underestimated. For both the Android and iOS, the role of application developers highly influences the growth of these platforms. Android, with its Java-based environment, is praised by many application developers because it Ã¢â¬Ëpromotes market competition, which safeguards against monopolization of the emerging mobile device markets, and spawns creativity among hardware and software companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Baliton 2012, p.1). This openness of Android encourages developers to create new apps in the future. On the other hand, the very diversity of Android leads to hardware fragmentation and this is a major stumbling block for many developers. Moreover, many experts observe that Ã¢â¬Ëmost developers prefer to develop for iOS first and Android second, if at allÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fox 2012, p.1). The main reason for this preference is that iOS developers get paid for development and receive royalties from their apps. This monetary reward is the primary incentive for many application developersÃ¢â¬â¢s preference for developing apps for the iOS. Conclusions The Android and iOS have pros and cons when it comes to developing new apps. AndroidÃ¢â¬â¢s strength lies in its use of the Java language; while iOS advantage is its more stable, exclusive platform for developers. Android allows developers more freedom and creativity in developing apps; but the iOS provides better monetary incentives for developers. In terms of applications, iOS is commended for its business features and functionalities; while Android is praised because of its better customization and flexibility, which allows it to be used across various devices (regardless of manufacturer). According to the latest IDC report, Android and iOS account for 90% of the global market share in smart phone operating systems. The two platforms are dominating the smart phone market and are expected to continue their leadership in the business. Google Android leads Apple iOS in terms of units shipped but the release of newer iPhone models are expected to decrease the gap between the two. Both the Google Android OS and Apple iOS have their own advantages and disadvantages. Both are equally strong competitors and together they are expected to rule the mobile platform marketplace in the foreseeable future, on the basis of their quality and features. References Anon. (2012).Ã Advantages and Disadvantages Android mobile phone. Available: http://mobilecon.info/advantages-and-disadvantages-android-mobile-phone.html. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Baliton, D. (2012).Ã Android provides the whole answer.Ã Available: networkworld.com/community/tech-debate-android-ios. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Berthiaume, J. (2012).Ã iOS the only choice for a modern enterprise. Available: networkworld.com/community/tech-debate-android-ios. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Business Dictionary. (2012).Ã Comparability Analysis.Ã Available: businessdictionary.com/definition/comparability-analysis.html. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Dix, J. (2012).Ã iOS vs. Android in the enterprise.Ã Available: networkworld.com/community/tech-debate-android-ios. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Flosi, S. (2012).Ã comScore Reports September 2012 U.S. Mobile Subscriber Market Share.Ã Available: comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2012/11/comScore_Reports_September_2012_U.S._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Fox, J. (2012).Ã iOS 6 vs. Android Jelly Bean.Ã Available: ign.com/articles/2012/09/25/ios-6-vs-android-jelly-bean. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Hof, R. (2012).Ã Googles Android Crushes Apples iOS In Smartphone ShipmentsBut Does It Matter?Ã Available: forbes.com/sites/roberthof/2012/11/02/googles-android-crushes-apple-in-smartphone-shipments-but-does-it-matter/. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Viswanathan, P. (2012).Ã Android OS Vs. Apple iOS Ã¢â¬â Which is Better for Developers?Ã Available: http://mobiledevices.about.com/od/kindattentiondevelopers/tp/Android-Os-Vs-Apple-Ios-Which-Is-Better-For-Developers.htm. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012. Walk, K. (2012).Ã How to Write a Comparative Analysis.Ã Available: fas.harvard.edu/~wricntr/documents/CompAnalysis.html. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Marxism in Anthropology - Essay Example Definitely, the purpose of Marxist anthropology must be the clarification of class struggle. On the contrary, it "has recently become for anthropologists a new source of obscurity as a result of recent work which is difficult and barbarously phrased' (Bloch, 1983, p. v). The problem is that such terminology does not free the social reality form its bourgeois mystifications or wrappings. Ethnographies are widely used in modern anthropology to analyse the complexities of labour and societal development. The ethnographic relativism of the real world which is fragmented into nations and regional societies could only be adequately explained through a theoretically rigorous anthropological paradigm. Marxist anthropology could be used effectively in order to analyse the way people and societies are alienated in contemporary world. Many a Marxists, who were variously influenced by structuralism and the interpretations of Althusser and Balibar, tried conspicuously to invent structure in pre-capitalist societies believing that that's what Marx did for capitalist societies. What they forgot to see is the fact that alienation and labour are the central categories through which Marx delineated his critique of the social structure of bourgeois society. It is labour theory of value as theoretical tool enables an anthropologist to shed light processes and patterns related to social formation, forces of production and mode of production, relations of production and exploitation. It does not mean that the Marxian labour theory of value could directly be applied to pre-capitalist societies as Marx developed it in order to deal with societies where modern market structures are prevalent. Maurice Godelier, who was influenced by Lvi-Strauss, has a prominent role in developing the Marxist anthropology. Godelier endeavoured t o apply the critical Marxist insights on the relationships between infrastructure and superstructure, and alienation and labour, especially to non-western societies. He conducted extensive researches among the Baruya of Papua New Guinea in the period of 1966 to 1969. Among the ethnographies in anthropology, Godeliers' 'The Making of Great Men' has a unique place. Godelier defines commodities as 'objects which are detachable from persons or groups which circulate in impersonal relations between persons or groups' (1978, p.66). For the purpose, the Marxian labour theory of value could be generalised as an analytical category for all types of societies. It means that commodities need to be excluded from the social reality of its production. Godelier asserts that 'the mainstream of capitalism is the desire to make money with money--money is transformed into capital which is then invested in the production and circulation of commodities' (1978, p.63). Without analysing a social formation from the point of view of labour time, the hidden social relationships of actual production cannot be revealed in. Therefore, the capitalist fetishism of commodities 'appear as an independent beings endowed with life, and entering into relation both with one another and with the human race' (Marx, 1965, p.72). What is necessary is to reveal the social relations associated to the embedded amount of labour time in specific commodities, be it of prehistoric or post-modern societies. It is still true that '[a]s